NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS:

PREFERRED PRODUCTS, DOSAGE GUIDE & CLINICAL DATA

DIGESTIVE & RENAL SYSTEM SUPPORT

[Disclosure: Some of the links below are affiliate links, meaning, at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you click through and make a purchase.]

 

[Disclaimer: The staff at Agape Health Solution LLC (AHS) are not licensed physicians (M.D. or D.O.), physician's assistants (P.A.), nurse practitioners (N.P.) or naturopathic doctors (N.D.). We do not practice medicine, nor do we diagnose, treat or prescribe in like manner. The information below is purely for educational purposes only. We strongly encourage that you consult a qualified, functionally-informed healthcare provider before using any health-related intervention. By viewing the information below you assume full responsibility for you and your minor child's use of any health strategy mentioned, and hold harmless the staff at AHS and all her affiliates and partners.]

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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SUPPORT: STOMACH 

 

1a. DIGESTIVE ENZYMES (PREMIUM PRODUCT): 

Enzymedica, Digest Gold, Capsules,

1-3 caps per dose,

1-3 doses a day (often with meals or after heavy meal),

max 9 caps a day 

1b. DIGESTIVE ENZYMES (BEST VALUE):

Doctor's Best, Digestive Enzymes, Capsules, 

1-3 caps per dose,

1-3 doses a day (often with meals or after heavy meal),

max 9 caps a day 

RESEARCH & INFO ON DIGESTIVE ENZYMES (INCLUDING 2 ARTICLES FOR ENZYMES USE WITH GI DISEASES)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4923703/ (2016; digestive enzyme supplementation in gastrointestinal diseases)

http://archive.foundationalmedicinereview.com/publications/13/4/307.pdf (2008; enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders)

............

https://enzymedica.com/pages/enzyme-faq

A potent broad-spectrum enzyme formula generally contains: Protease @ 80-100k HUT, Lipase @ 3-4k FIP, Amylase @ 20-25k DU, Lactase @ 1k ALU, Cellulase @ 3k CU

**.BETAINE HCL: 

Solaray, Betaine HCL 650mg, Capsules

1000-4500mg or 2-6 caps per dose,

1-3 doses a day,

max 15,000mg a day 

RESEARCH & INFO ON BETAINE HCL (INCLUDING 1 ARTICLE FOR INCREASING STOMACH ACIDITY)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980906 (2013; betaine and re-acidification of stomach to improve digestion & absorption)

..........

https://healthygut.com/articles/how-to-supplement-with-betaine-hcl-for-low-stomach-acid/

https://healthygut.com/articles/4-common-betaine-hcl-mistakes/

Many betaine HCL supplements also contain pepsin, usually at 20-160mg/capsule. The Solaray product contains 160mg pepsin/cap. Therapeutic doses of pepsin generally range from 50mg up to 1000mg, taken before a meal.

RESEARCH ON VITAMIN C & STOMACH ISSUES (4 FOR GASTRITIS/H. PYLORI)

Because of its many therapeutic applications, vitamin C is listed under the Micronutrient category. However, a notable amount of research on vitamin C (primary as ascorbic acid) has shown benefits for common stomach issues such as gastritis and h.pylori infection. As such, I've listed a handfull of links to some scientific articles here, under the Stomach Support section... 

(note that ~50% of the world population is infected with h pylori, including approx. 20-50% of American adults)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3874117/ (2012; update on info regarding vit C, gastritis and h. pylori)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16201845 (2005; protective effect of vit C and vit E on h. pylori & gastric cancer)

https://gut.bmj.com/content/43/3/322 (1998; positive effects of vit C on gastritis, presence of h. pylori)

https://gut.bmj.com/content/38/2/171 (1996; positive effects of vitamin C on gastritis)

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SUPPORT: INTESTINES

 

2. HIGH LACTOBACILLUS & BIFIDOBACTERIUM PROBIOTIC:

Now Foods, 100 Billion Probiotic, Capsules,

100-400B CFU or 1-4 caps per dose,

1-8 doses a day,

max of 3.6 trillion CFU per day (highest amount used in clinical trials)

RESEARCH ON PROBIOTICS (MAINLY LACTO & BIFIDO BACTERIA STRAINS) 

(6 FOR IMMUNE SYSTEM, 4-5 FOR GI CONDITIONS, 4 FOR VARIOUS DISORDERS, 2 FOR WEIGHT/BODY FAT)…

Note that many probiotic studies use formulations such as align, culturelle, florajen, howaru, florastor, VSL #3 (now visbiome)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306248/ (2018; review found 68% of probiotics reviewed had strong-moderate efficacy for at least 1 disease)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213508/ (2018; over past 40 years probiotics have been shown to impact the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro; microbial–immune system crosstalk has been linked to 1) SCFA production & signaling, 2) tryptophan metabolism, 3) nucleoside signaling in the gut and 4) activation of the intestinal histamine-2 receptor; several RCTs have shown that microbial modification by probiotics may improve GI symptoms and multiorgan inflammation in RA, UC and MS diseases; most lactobacilli and bifidobacilli are primarily small bowel colonizers, where they exert their immunologic effects; from 2000 - 2017 there was an explosion of interest in probiotics, with the annual # of RCTs ranging from 144-194; in 2017 there were also 49 meta-analyses; 4 significant conditions have consistently been shown to respond to probiotics in humans in meta-analysis: NEC, IBS, infant colic & respiratory infections)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218795/ (2018; probiotics confer immunological protection to the host through the regulation, stimulation, and modulation of immune responses; probiotics alone, or together with prebiotics, have potential to modulate the gut microbiota and immune responses in the host; probiotics have a positive influence on innate immunity, exerting several antiviral properties)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995450/ (2018; even lower doses [<100 million CFU/day] probiotics were safe & effective for fighting the common cold & flu-like respiratory infections by boosting the immune system)

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/obr.12626 (2017; review & meta analysis of RCTs (>950 subjects) found probiotics resulted in significantly larger reduction in body weight and fat percentage compared w/ placebo)

www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0801/p170.html (2017 review of the evidence for using probiotics for GI conditions)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5031164/ (2016; probiotics exhibit various beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases & immune system support; one of the most known health effects is preventing & ameliorating bowel diseases by improving the immune system)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4761174/ (2016; review of probiotics in prevention and treatment of obesity finds probiotics positively contribute to gut health, positively affecting food intake, appetite, bodyweight, body composition and various metabolic functions)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24499072 (2014; L. rhamnosus, L. casei, B. animalis, B. lactis & S. boulardii are some of the most investigated probiotic cultures for their immunomodulation properties; probiotics can enhance nonspecific immune response characterized by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes & the release of various cytokines; probiotic use in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood; probiotic use in pregnancy could affect fetal immune parameters such as cord blood interferon (IFN)-γ levels, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels, and breast milk immunoglobulin (Ig)A; probiotics improve the gut mucosal immune system by increasing the number of IgA(+) cells and cytokine-producing cells in the effector site of the intestine)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3424311/ (2013 article; discusses VSL #3/visbiome and using up to 3.6T CFU in clinical studies)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22529959 (2012; significant positive health effects for 8 different strains of probiotics)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3424311/ (2012; evidence supporting conventional probiotics for some clinical conditions)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006993/ (2011; several + effects of probiotics on the host intestinal mucosal defense system have been identified, including blocking pathogenic bacterial effects and competing with pathogens & toxins for adherence to the intestinal wall; for intestinal epithelial homeostasis, probiotics promote intestinal epithelial cell survival, enhance barrier function, and stimulate protective responses from intestinal epithelial cells; modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotics on human health; probiotics have been found to enhance the innate immunity & modulate pathogen-induced inflammation)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20145608 (2010 study of antibiotic and c.diff-associated diarrhea showing superiority of 100B CFU vs 50B CFU)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17688660  (2007 study that found 50-75B CFU/day [and 8-10g psyllium] effective for treating Crohn’s)

………..

https://selfhacked.com/blog/a1probiotics-good-bacteria/

https://selfhacked.com/blog/a6probiotic-for-weight-loss-belly-fat-metabolism/

3. SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII PROBIOTIC: 

Now Foods, S. Boulardii 5 Billion CFU, Capsules

5-20B CFU or 1-4 caps per dose,

1-3 doses a day,

max 60 billion CFU per day (highest amount used in clinical trials)

RESEARCH ON SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII (A BENEFICIAL YEAST; 5 FOR VARIOUS GI CONDITIONS)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375115/ (2019; s. boulardii has anti-inflammatory effects & preserves & restores intestinal barrier function)

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173802 (2017; positive change in gut microbiome seen w/ s. boulardii treatment in HIV positive individuals)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027949/ (2016; review finds s. boulardii effective against several GI disorders, including acute diarrhea)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296087/ (2012; review finds s. boulardii effective for the prevention & treatment of numerous GI disorders)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868213/ (2010 review of s. boulardii; most studies therapeutic doses ~20B CFU/day but some as high as 60B CFU/day)

...........

https://selfhacked.com/blog/s-boulardii/

4. PREBIOTIC FIBER (ACACIA):

Heather's, Acacia Fiber, Powder,

2-6g or 1-3 tsp per dose,

1-5 doses a day,

max of 30g per day

RESEARCH ON PREBIOTICS, SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS & ACACIA FIBER

(6 FOR GI HEALTH, 1 FOR RA, 1 FOR OBESITY/BLOOD SUGAR/INSULIN, 1 FOR GENERAL HEALTH)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579922/ (2019; review of IBS, including beneficial effects of prebiotics on gut microbiome)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077585/ (2018; study of acacia and RA [30g/day had positive effects on inflammatory markers])

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104520/  (2018; study of benefits of butyric acid [butyrate], produced by bacteria acting on prebiotic fiber)  

www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/12/1348 (2017; short chain fatty acids produced by prebiotics & + effects on colon cancer, obesity & insulin resistance)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756104/ (2016; benefits of short chain fatty acids produced by bacteria acting on prebiotic fiber)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/ (2013 well-cited study on fiber mechanisms & health)  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18466655 (2008; optimal acacia fiber/gum Arabic dose 10g/day for increasing beneficial gut bacteria)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12088511 (2002; GI effects of prebiotics)

5a. FUNCTIONAL FIBER (PSYLLIUM, CAPSULES):

Now Foods, Psyllium Capsules (500mg),

3-7g or 6-14 caps per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 20-30g a day

5b. FUNCTIONAL FIBER (PSYLLIUM, POWDER):

Viva Naturals, Organic Psyllium Husk Powder,

5-10g or 1-2 tsp per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 20-30g a day

RESEARCH ON FIBER IN GENERAL (INCLUDING U.S. FIBER DEFICIENCY)…

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986507/ (2018; found US adults ave 14g fiber/day, and only 3% meet daily guidelines 23-38g/day) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5390821/ (2017; found US adults ave 12-18g fiber/day; 23-38g/day IS daily recommendation)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415962/ (2015 review, part 1 of 2; describes 4 clinically meaningful categories of fiber)

 

RESEARCH ON PSYLLIUM IN PARTICULAR (3 FOR IBS, 3 FOR HUNGER/BLOOD SUGAR/INSULIN/WEIGHT)…

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5548066/ (2017 review of fiber & IBS; 14 trials of 900+ IBS patients found psyllium most effective at improving symptoms)  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5413815/  (2017; review of psyllium in at least 24 well controlled studies; usual doses were 6-15g/day w/ 10g/day common; only 5% of adults consume recommended level of dietary fiber) 

https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-016-0207-4 (2016; study of 40 diabetics showed 10g/day psyllium improved BMI, A1c & insulin markers)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27166077 (2016; 3.4g, 6.8g & 10.2g psyllium taken before b fast & lunch reduced hunger & desire to eat) 

ww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415970/ (2015 review, part 2 of 2; finds psyllium as effective stool normalizer for IBS-C and IBS-D)

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00603.x (2007; increased intake of viscous fibers like psyllium decreases hunger & improve satiety)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1432983/ (1987; small study found 20-30g/day psyllium to be superior to 10g/day for IBS) 

………….

https://selfhacked.com/blog/psyllium-husk/

6a. MAGNESIUM (CITRATE, POWDER):

Natural Vitality, Natural Calm, Powder (several flavors),

160-480mg or 1-3 tsp per dose,

1-2 doses per day (larger dose often taken at night to support healthy sleep),

max of 1000mg a day

6b. MAGNESIUM (CITRATE, CAPSULES): 

Pure Encapsulations, Magnesium Citrate (150mg), Capsules,

150-450mg or 1-3 caps per dose,

1-2 doses per day (larger dose often taken at night to support healthy sleep),

max of 1000mg a day

6c. MAGNESIUM (GLYCINATE, CAPSULES): 

Pure Encapsulations, Magnesium Glycinate (120mg), Capsules,

120-480mg or 1-4 caps per dose,

1-2 doses per day (larger dose often taken at night to support healthy sleep),

max of 1000mg a day

RESEARCH ON MAGNESIUM

(3 FOR TESTOSTERONE, 4 FOR CONSTIPATION, 2 FOR GALLSTONES; 2 FOR NUMEROUS [MIGRAINES, DIABETES, CVD, HYPERTENSION, ADHD])

(clinically, dosages are often 300-600mg/day but sometimes up to 800mg or even 1000mg/day are used)…

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5637834/ (2017 review of scientific literature on mag.; required as a cofactor for >300 enzymatic reactions; nearly 2/3 of US population not achieving the RDA; level I evidence supports use of mag. in the prevention & treatment of many conditions including migraines, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, asthma, PMS & cardiac arrhythmias; also useful in kidney stones, cataracts)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4586582/ (2015 review of scientific literature on magnesium; mag plays essential role in muscle contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability & nerve transmission; hypomagnesemia more common than hyper; results in unwanted nervous system, muscular and/or cardiac disorders. Low mag levels associated w/ Alzheimer’s, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, CVD, stroke, migraines and ADHD)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3958794/  (2014; the positive effects of mag on testosterone levels) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352370/ (2011; the positive effects of mag on testosterone levels)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21675994/ (2011; the positive effects of mag on testosterone levels)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036964/ (2011; review finds mag sulfate/Epsom salts effective as treatment for chronic constipation)  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3206558/ (2011; review of tx options for chronic constipation, including use of magnesium hydroxide)  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18076730 (2008; study of 42k men over 16 yrs found higher mag intake associated with lower risk of gallstones) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18289201 (2008; discussion of mag and gallstones, which found low mag increased risk of gallstones) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17151587 (2007; study of chronic constipation & 3800 Japanese women found link of low mag intake & constipation) 

www.nature.com/articles/1602573 (FULL TEXT of above 2007 study) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2794454/ (2007; review of tx for chronic constipation, including use of magnesium hydroxide) 

..............

www.swansonvitamins.com/blog/lindsey/magnesium-types-compared

https://selfhacked.com/blog/21-proven-science-based-reasons-magnesium-amazing-including-drawbacks/

7. GLUTAMINE: 

NutraBio, L-Glutamine Powder,

5-10g or 1-2 tsp per dose,

1-4 doses per day,

max of 14-40g a day

(note I generally don't recommend glutamine for those w/ anxiety conditions)

RESEARCH ON GLUTAMINE (5 FOR PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE, 4 FOR GI, 2 FOR CRITICAL ILLNESS)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520936/ (2019; review of 55 articles looking at glutamine’s anti-fatigue properties)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454963/ (2017; glutamine’s impact on intestinal diseases [leaky gut, impacting tight junctions])

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545503 (2015; review of literature on glutamine’s effect on recovery of muscle strength found inconsistent results)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25811544 (2015 study of glutamine on post exercise soreness & strength found + results, contradicting review above)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155228/ (2014; very small study on 5 male juvenile rowers showed glutamine decreased post exercise fatigue and inflammation while enhancing immune function)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3224464/ (2011; review; glutamine reduces mortality in clinical illness; 10-40g/day common thera. dose)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4369670/ (2011; glutamine’s impact on intestinal diseases [leaky gut, impacting tight junctions])

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18325648 (2008; Observed Safe Limit [OSL] for glut. is 14g/day, although many studies have used higher amounts w/o ill effects)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18806122 (2008; exercise/sport training; dosing of 20-30g usually without ill effect)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11193715/ (2000; average person consumes ~10g/day; critically ill patients likely need 20-40g/day)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11151079 (2000; glutamine & the G.I. tract)

www.itmonline.org/arts/glutamine.htm (2000; benefits of glutamine for side effects of chemotherapy, burns, injuries and GI tract)

.............

https://goodbyeleakygut.com/l-glutamine-leaky-gut/ (2019; mentions late Charles Poliquin’s protocol of up to 80g/day of glutamine, which I think is way too high!)

https://selfhacked.com/blog/l-glutamine-15-proven-health-benefits/

8. GLYCINE:  

BulkSupplements, Glycine, Powder,

4.5-9g or 1-2 tsp per dose,

1-2 doses per day (often higher dose is taken at night to promote sleep),

max of 25g per day

(Note that very high doses [60-70g/day] have been used in clinical trials to treat conditions like schizophrenia) 

RESEARCH ON GLYCINE (1 FOR GI, 1 FOR ARTHRITIS/JOINT PAIN, 1 FOR SLEEP, 2 FOR MULTIPLE CONDITIONS, 2 FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153947/ (2018; glycine benefits osteoarthritis; average 150lbs person has 10g/day glycine deficiency)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622680/#B70-nutrients-09-00920 (2017; glycine protects against colitis & IBD) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5350494/ (2017; benefit of glycine for multiple conditions)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195924/ (2014; positive effects of 15-20g/day glycine on cardio, metabolic & blood sugar markers)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328957/ (2012; 3g/night glycine improved sleep quality)

..................

Very high dose glycine protocols (60-70g/day) have been used to help treat mental health conditions like schizophrenia…

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713375/ (2009; + effects of up to 0.8g/kg/day glycine for 5 days [~70g/day for 200lbs person] for schizoph.)  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15205876 (2004; positive effects for schizophrenics with mean doses of ~60g/day of glycine)

...........

https://selfhacked.com/blog/glycine-little-protein/

RESEARCH ON VITAMIN A & GI HEALTH

Because of its many therapeutic applications, vitamin A is listed under the Micronutrient category. However, a notable amount of research on vitamin A has shown benefits for various GI issues, specifically infections of the GI tract. As such, I've listed a handful of links to some scientific articles here, under the Intestinal Support section... 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164597/ (2018; vitamin A’s beneficial effect on GI infections in children)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952623/ (2014; vitamin A deficiency associated with GI morbidity)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2830290/ (2010; vitamin A lowers parasitic infection, specifically giardia)

RESEARCH ON VITAMIN D & GI HEALTH

Because of its many therapeutic applications, vitamin D is listed under the Micronutrient category. However, a notable amount of research on vitamin D has shown benefits for various GI issues. As such, I've listed a handful of links to some scientific articles here, under the Intestinal Support section... 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29726893 (2018; vitamin D supplementation reduces intestinal inflammation in patients with Ulcerative Colitis)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29762159 (2018; vitamin D plays a protective role in gut health)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480538/ (2015; vitamin D beneficial for maintaining intestinal permeability)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25047396 (2014; inverse relationship between vitamin D and progression of Crohn’s and colorectal cancers; full text link available)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036961/ (2011; vitamin D’s role in gastrointestinal diseases like IBD)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805278/ (2008; vitamin D deficiency common in gastrointestinal and liver diseases)

RESEARCH ON ZINC & GI HEALTH

Because of its many therapeutic applications, zinc is listed under the Micronutrient category. However, a notable amount of research on zinc has shown benefits for various GI issues. As such, I've listed a handful of links to some scientific articles here, under the Intestinal Support section... 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231515/ (2014; zinc def. found in several GI diseases; many benefits of Zn supplementation; doses >150mg/day may be toxic)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10801949 (2000; zinc deficiency, malnutrition & the GI tract)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1432467 (1992; positive impact of zinc supplementation on intestinal permeability)

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SUPPORT: LIVER & GALLBLADDER 

9. CHOLINE (FROM SUNFLOWER LECITHIN, SOFTGELS): 

Now Foods, Sunflower Lecithin (1200mg or ~200mg choline), Softgels,

600-1000mg choline or 3-5 softgels per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 3.5-8g of choline per day (16 or more softgels) 

RESEARCH ON CHOLINE (3 FOR NAFLD, 1 FOR WEIGHT)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717871/  (2016 review of choline and its role in NAFLD) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096089/ (2014; study of 22 female athletes found choline supplementation at 2g/day can rapidly reduce body mass w/o adverse effects on biochemical levels or strength)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3729018/ (2013 review of choline and its role in NAFLD)  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3601486/ (2012 review of choline and its role in NAFLD) 

............

https://selfhacked.com/blog/top-18-scientific-health-benefits-choline-cdp-choline-alpha-gpc/

https://selfhacked.com/blog/lecithin/

**. TUDCA (TAUROURSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID):

NutriCost, TUDCA 250mg, Capsules,

250-750mg or 1-3 caps per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 2000mg a day

RESEARCH ON TUDCA (8 FOR LIVER [NAFLD, NASH, LIVER ENZYMES, HEPATITIS, ETC.])

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30998645 (2019; rat study; TUDCA as liver protectant)

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0753332217348722 (2018 mice study; TUDCA as liver protective)

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.14095 (2017; TUDCA effective for reducing intestinal inflammation in mice w/ NAFLD)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24865256 (2014 rat study; TUDCA prevents progression of NASH)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592128 (2013; TUDCA effective for reducing liver enzymes, increasing albumin)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18435680 (2008; rat study; TUDCA increases bile flow in damaged livers)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9840118 (1998; TUDCA effective at 500-750mg/day for chronic hepatitis)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8541578 (1995; TUDCA is liver protective even at very low doses 10-13mg)

.................

https://selfhacked.com/blog/tudca-benefits/

**a. BETAINE ANHYDROUS/TMG (CAPSULES):

NutriCost, TMG 750mg, Capsules,

1.5-3g or 2-4 caps per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 20-30g a day

**b. BETAINE ANHYDROUS/TMG (POWDER):

BulkSupplements, Betaine Anhydrous, Powder,

1.25-2.5g or 1/2-1 tsp per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 20-30g a day

RESEARCH ON BETAINE ANHYDROUS/TMG (9 FOR LIVER HEALTH)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30311401 (2019; betaine enhances liver detox and may alleviate the progression of liver fibrosis & liver damage)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614103 (2017; NAFLD severity is associated with a state of betaine insufficiency)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5647077/ (2017 rat study; betaine reduces chronic alcohol induced fatty liver)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26850693 (2016; betaine’s remarkable contributions to human health, specifically liver diseases; safe at 3-30g/day)

https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/bitstream/handle/1805/11254/Day_2015_betaine.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (full text of above article)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24456734 (2014; betaine’s ability to regulate methylation is a possible mechanism for its ability to improve NAFLD)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2993168/ (2010; betaine prevents and treats fatty liver in moderate-high fat diet in mice)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19824078 (2009; RCT saw group taking 20g/day of betaine reduce their grade of liver steatosis)

https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/80/3/539/4690529 (2004; betaine in human nutrition, including its positive effects on liver disease)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8836329 (1996; betaine as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of liver disease)

.............................

https://selfhacked.com/blog/tmg-health-benefits/

**a. TAURINE:

NutriCost, Taurine 1000mg, Capsules,

1-3g or 1-3 caps per dose,

1-2 doses per day,

max of 7.5g a day

**b. TAURINE:

BulkSupplements, Taurine, Powder,

1.8-3.6g or 1/2-1 tsp per dose,

1-2 doses per day,

max of 7.5g a day

RESEARCH ON TAURINE (7 FOR LIVER, 3 FOR NERVOUS SYSTEM/SEIZURES/TINNITUS)…

While not present in the clinical literature, there are reports of individuals consuming up to 14g of taurine a day with only positive effects

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615919/ (2016; positive effect of taurine on chronic & acute liver injury)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685501/ (2015; taurine reduces liver inflammation in alcohol-fed rats)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22918604 (2014; taurine protective against liver disease)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410665 (2013; in 9 patients w/ epilepsy, seizure disappeared in 5 when taking 1.5-7.5g oral taurine for 2 wks)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3501277/ (2012; review of benefits of taurine, including on nervous system, eyes & heart)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3233850/ (2011; taurine supplementation as preventative for NAFLD)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2997922/ (2010; taurine’s positive effects on tinnitus in an animal model)  

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19239160 (2009; rat study; taurine should be considered as therapeutic agent for liver injury & liver fibrosis)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19239162 (2009; rat study; alcohol-induced liver disease can be prevented & reversed with taurine)

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00726-007-0565-5 (2008; amino acid taurine improves liver in chronic hepatitis patients)

.............................

https://selfhacked.com/blog/taurine-benefits/

**a. MILK THISTLE EXTRACT (STANDARDIZED TO 80% SILYMARIN):

Now Foods, Extra Strength Silymarin (450mg of 80% silymarin extract), Softgels,

400-1200mg silymarin or 1-3 softgels per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 13g silymarin (majority of clinical studies use 400-2000mg silymarin/day) 

 

**b. MILK THISTLE EXTRACT (STANDARDIZED TO 80% SILYMARIN): 

Toniiq, Milk Thistle (500mg of 80% silymarin extract), Capsules,

400-1200mg silymarin or 1-3 softgels per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 13g silymarin (majority of clinical studies use 400-2000mg silymarin/day) 

RESEARCH ON MILK THISTLE, SILYMARIN & SILYBIN (7 FOR LIVER, 1 FOR SEVERAL CONDITIONS)…

Dosages for silymarin and silybin in clinical studies are usually 400-2000mg/day, although up to 13g of silybin/day have been used w/o adverse effect

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30080294 (2018; review/overview of milk thistle & its use with liver diseases)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3959115/ (2014; liver-protective effects of milk thistle)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21466434 (2012; milk thistle for prevention and treatment of diverse liver diseases and liver cancer)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098397/ (2011; silybin phytosome more effective than silymarin; no adverse effects as doses <10g/day; silybin has proven antifibrotic, antioxidant and metabolic effects) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586829/ (2011; silymarin as promising therapeutic agent for several diseases, due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20564545 (2010; review of milk thistle/silymarin for liver diseases)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11735632 (2001; silymarin plays a positive role in many liver diseases, including cirrhosis)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9468229 (1998; milk thistle as therapy for various liver diseases)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2671116 (1989; small RCT showing silymarin decreased 4-yr mortality rate in ppl with liver cirrhosis)

...........................

https://selfhacked.com/blog/milk-thistle/

*. NAC (N-ACETYL L-CYSTEINE): 

BulkSupplements, NAC 600mg, Capsules,

600-1200mg or 1-2 caps per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 3g/day

RESEARCH ON NAC (5 FOR LIVER, 6 FOR LUNGS/SMOKE)…

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28205121 (2017; IV NAC showed positive effects for 155 adults w/ non acetaminophen induced acute liver failure) 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40261-017-0505-4 (another link to above study)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241507/ (2017 review of literature on benefits and safety of NAC, including prevention of hepatotoxicity)   

https://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(16)00983-1/fulltext (2016 mouse study; NAC inhibits adverse effect of tobacco smoke)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270338/ (2010; 15 patients w/ NAFLD, 3 months of NAC treatment improved liver function vs vitamin C) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790590/ (2009; NAC reduced mortality for 47 patients w/ non acetaminophen induced acute liver failure)  

https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hep.23484 (2009; IV NAC improves survival in 173 patients w/ early stage NAI-ALF)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16924570 (2006 rabbit study; NAC inhibits adverse effect of tobacco smoke)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706612/ (2006; NAC at 1200-1800mg/day effective for treatment against COPD)

http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/11/2/167 (2002; NAC inhibits adverse effect of tobacco smoke at 1200mg/day)

http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/erj/15/3/505.full.pdf (2000 rat study; NAC inhibits adverse effect of tobacco smoke in rats)

https://journal.chestnet.org/article/S0012-3692(16)38220-4/fulltext (1995; NAC for lung cancer prevention at doses as low as 600mg/day)

*. OX BILE:

Nutricology, Ox Bile (500mg), Capsules,

500mg or 1 cap per dose,

1-3 doses per day

RESEARCH ON OX BILE (2 FOR LIVER HEALTH)...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4819118/ (2016; the use of animal biles [including ox/cattle/bovine and bear/TUDCA] for liver diseases)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20434968 (2010; bile salts [like ox bile and UDCA] are effective for increasing bile flow in cholestasis)

...................

https://selfhacked.com/blog/bile-supplements/

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SUPPORT: KIDNEYS & RENAL SYSTEM

9a. POTASSIUM CITRATE (CAPSULES): 

Pure Encapsulations, Pot. Citrate (200mg), Capsules,

200-400mg or 1-2 caps per dose,

1-3 doses per day

9b. POTASSIUM CITRATE (POWDER): 

BulkSupplements, Potassium Citrate, Powder,

500-1000mg or 1/4-1/2 tsp per dose,

1-3 doses per day

RESEARCH ON POTASSIUM CITRATE (7 FOR KIDNEYS/KIDNEY STONES, 1 FOR SKELETAL/BONE HEALTH)…

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686309/ (2017; potassium citrate recommended for children <2 yrs old with kidney stones/renal calculi)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578058/ (2013; potassium citrate has the potential to improve skeletal health)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20576821 (2010; pot. citrate led to dramatic reduction in kidney stone event rate [0.58 to 0.10 stones/yr/patient)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20399488 (2010; potassium citrate corrects high urine calcium & is associated w/ a very high remission rate for kidney stone disease)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19911682 (2009; potassium citrate decreases saturation of calcium oxalate, reduces the rate of stone reoccurrence, increases clearance and dissolution of stone fragments.)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19765769 (2009; potassium citrate therapy decreases risk of kidney stone formation during spaceflight!)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11475849 (2001; therapeutic applications for potassium citrate include oxalate kidney stones, excess calcium & oxalate in urine & treatment of hypertension; 1 year remission of kidney stones observed in 70-75% of cases)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8230497 (1993; randomized trial showed efficacy of pot. citrate in preventing new stone formation in those with history of calcium oxalate kidney stones)

**. SODIUM BICARBONATE (BAKING SODA):

Bob's Red Mill, Baking Soda, Powder,

2.5-5g or 1/2-1 tsp per dose,

1-3 doses per day,

max of 3-5 tsp per day

  

(The highest quality sodium bicarbonate, Bob's Red Mill Baking Soda, is available on Amazon.com but it tends to be overpriced there; the link above is to Vitacost.com, or you can purchase from your local health food store) 

RESEARCH ON BAKING SODA (6 FOR PHYSICAL/SPORTS PERFORMANCE, 4 FOR KIDNEY HEALTH)…

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30680463 (2019; sodium bicarb is well-established ergogenic aid but GI distress is common side effect; delayed-release capsules can mitigate GI symptoms that come with aqueous solution)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30220653 (2018; in both clinical & experimental studies sodium bicarb has been shown to improve GFR and halt the progression toward end stage renal disease)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5957406/ (2018; small study of 21 CrossFit participants over 10 days found 150mg per kg sodium bicarb [roughly 2 tsp/day for 150lbs person or 2.75 tsp/day for 200lbs person] improved fitness performance)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27399820 (2016; sodium bicarb as an effective ergogenic aid; suggested therapeutic dose is 300mg per kg [or roughly 4 tsp/day for 150lbs person or 5.5 tsp/day for 200lbs person])

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4475610/ (2015; small study of 13 men in their early 20s found sodium bicarb improved high-intensity intermittent training [HIIT] performance, and lowered rate of perceived exertion)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3641618/ (2013; sodium bicarb supplementation results in increase in serum bicarb and improves lower body strength after short-term intervention in CKD patients w/ mild acidosis)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23323673 (2013; sodium bicarb improves cycling performance & lowers ratings of perceived exertion)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964428 (2012; small study of 8 men found that ingesting sodium bicarb 3 hrs before physical exertion reduced likelihood of GI distress when compared to ingesting 1 hr or 2 hrs before exertion, without sacrificing ergogenic benefits)

https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article/27/8/3056/1817928 (2012; baking soda in patients w/ early to advanced CKD has proved to be reno-protective)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3580168/ (2012; systematic review of short and long-term effects of sodium bicarb therapy on chronic kidney disease [CKD] found sodium bicarb therapy associated w/ an improvement in kidney function, which may slow the progression of CKD)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2849539 (1988; pre exercise administration of sodium bicarb improves performance in interval swimming)

10. RAW APPLE CIDER VINEGAR:  

Bragg's, Organic Apple Cider Vinegar, Liquid,

0.5-1oz or 1-2 tbsp per dose

(Pro Tip: dilute ACV in a few ounces of water),

1-3 doses per day 

(There are quality control issues [including counterfeit products] for Bragg's ACV on Amazon.com. I recommend purchasing from your local healthfood store or through Vitacost.com)   

VINEGAR & ACETIC ACID

(3 FOR BLOOD SUGAR & WEIGHT, 1 FOR KIDNEY STONES, 1 FOR BLOOD PRESSURE, 1 FOR TOPICAL APPLICATIONS)…

www.researchgate.net/publication/333526775_Vinegar_acetic_acid_intake_on_glucose_metabolism_A_narrative_review (2019; apple cider vinegar intake has beneficial effect on glycemic profile; consumption of 2-6 tbsp of vinegar appears to be adequate to acutely alter glycemic profile)

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1750-3841.12434 (2014; therapeutic effect of vinegar arise from compounds like acetic acid, gallic acid & others, which have antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering effects) 

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3940030/ (2014; examines the topical benefits of vinegar & acetic acid; acetic acid efficiently kills M. tuberculosis after 30 min exposure to a 6% acetic acid solution. The activity is not due to pH alone. Acetic acid (vinegar) is an effective mycobactericidal disinfectant & should be active against most other bacteria. Mycobacteria are best known for causing tuberculosis & leprosy, but infections w/ nontuberculous mycobacteria are an increasing problem after surgical or cosmetic procedures or the lungs of cystic fibrosis & immunosuppressed patients)

www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bbb/73/8/73_90231/_pdf (2009; study of 175 obese Japanese found vinegar [~1 tbsp 2x a day] reduces body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1785201/ (2006; benefits of vinegar and acetic acid on blood sugar control)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11826965 (2001; rat study; found long-term administration of vinegar & acetic acid, the main component of vinegar, significantly reduced both blood pressure compared to controls given no acetic acid)

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